How the Golden age changed the world, or what was revived in the Renaissance
Renaissance (Renaissance) – an era that replaced the middle ages and preceded the New time. It is characterized by a sharp jump in the development of all spheres of social life (from science to art), the main vector of which is humanism, anthropocentrism and secularism. The main focus of the Renaissance was on man and his virtues. What are the features of the Renaissance and what geniuses of the Renaissance influenced the era and laid the Foundation of modern art?
The periodical of the Renaissance begins with the XIV century and ends by the XVII century. The Renaissance promoted the rediscovery of classical philosophy, literature, and art. A significant number of the greatest thinkers, authors, statesmen, scientists and artists in the history of mankind showed their talent in this era. Thus, the Renaissance is credited with bridging the gap between the middle ages and modern civilization.
The Stages Of Regeneration:
1. Proto-Renaissance (2nd half of the XIII century — XIV century)
2. Early Renaissance (early XV — late XV century)
3. High Renaissance (late XV — first 20 years of the XVI century)
4. Late Renaissance (mid-XVI-1590s)
Historians agree that the Renaissance originated in Italy (several theories have been put forward to explain why this period began in Italy). The wealth of Italy increased significantly in the XIV-XVI centuries. Favorable geographical location, access to the sea, its own port, political and economic stability, along with the ability to resist external pressure, active development of trade relations with Europe, Asia, and the East – all this created a fertile ground for prosperity and the beginning of a Renaissance in Italy. Favorable conditions led to the opening of local schools of art, to the development of talents in various fields of culture, science, literature, philosophy, etc.in addition, in the late middle ages, Italy consisted of city-States that had a certain degree of political freedom. It allowed us to achieve artistic and academic progress outside of strict limits. Another reason for the evolution of development in Italy is the “black death” (or plague), which led to a large number of deaths in this country. The harsh reality has forced scientists to move away from medieval thoughts about the afterlife and spirituality and think more about their real existence on Earth.
The movement spread to other Italian city-States, such as Venice, Milan, Bologna, and Rome. Then, in the fifteenth century, the ideas of the Renaissance spread from Italy to France, and then throughout Western and Northern Europe.
The Renaissance as a single historical period ended with the fall of Rome in 1527. The gap between the Christian faith and classical humanism led to mannerism in the second half of the sixteenth century.
The main idea of the Renaissance is humanism
Humanism had several essential features.
– First of all, as the subject he accepted the person in the totality of its achievements and manifestations.
“Second, he emphasized the unity of truth in all schools of philosophy and theology – a doctrine known as syncretism.
– Third, humanism emphasized human dignity.
– Finally, humanism sought to restore the lost human spirit and wisdom.
The effect of humanism was to help people free themselves from the mental restrictions imposed by religious Orthodoxy, to inspire free research, and to instill faith in the possibilities of human thought and creativity. The first progenitors of early humanistic thought were Francesco Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio, who contributed to the renewal of traditional Greek and Roman culture and values.
Renaissance art tended towards realism, which involves the use of perspective. The greatest artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci depicted the human anatomy and contributed to the understanding of the human form. The founder of Renaissance painting was Masaccio (1401-1428). The monumentality of the compositions and the high degree of naturalism in his works made Masaccio a key figure in Renaissance painting. Masters of the Northern Renaissance, Jan van Eyck and Hugo van der HUS, began using oil paint, and also popularized the technique of naturalism. The Renaissance style of architecture revived some elements of ancient Roman and Greek architecture. Renaissance literature, in contrast to medieval literature, focused on human behavior and characteristics (based on the main vector – humanism). Significant breakthroughs in science and technology also occurred during the Renaissance, including the invention of the telescope, glasses, printed materials, gunpowder, a compass for sailors, paper, and watches. New musical instruments (violin and harpsichord) contributed to the appearance of Opera. Composers sought to create music with a special emotional effect. Other results of the Renaissance include the growth of Protestantism, the growth of a capitalist market economy, and the discovery of the New World attributed to Columbus.
Geniuses of the Renaissance
1. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): Italian painter, architect, inventor and “Renaissance man”, author of the Mona Lisa and the last supper.
2. Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536): Dutch scholar who defined the humanist movement in Northern Europe. Translator of the New Testament into Greek.
3. Rene Descartes (1596-1650): French philosopher and mathematician, considered the father of modern philosophy. He is famous for the aphorism: “I think, therefore I exist”.
4. Galileo (1564-1642): Italian astronomer, physicist and engineer whose pioneering work with telescopes allowed him to describe the moons of Jupiter and the rings of Saturn. Was placed under arrest for his views on the heliocentric universe.
5. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543): mathematician and astronomer, advanced the first modern scientific argument for the concept of a heliocentric solar system.
6. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679): English philosopher and author of Leviathan.
7. Geoffrey Chaucer (1343-1400): English poet and author of the Canterbury tales.
8. Giotto (1266-1337): Italian painter and architect whose realistic depictions of human emotions influenced many generations of artists. He is best known for his frescoes in the Scrovegni chapel in Padua.
9. Dante (1265-1321): Italian philosopher, poet, writer and political thinker, author of the divine Comedy.
10. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527): Italian diplomat and philosopher, known for his works “the Sovereign” and “Discourses on the first decade of Titus Livy”.
11. Titian (1488-1576): an Italian artist famous for his portraits of Pope Paul III and Charles I and his later religious and mythical paintings (“Venus and Adonis” and “the Ascension of the virgin Mary”).
12. William Tyndale (1494-1536): English Bible translator, humanist and scholar, was burned at the stake for translating the Bible into English.
13. William Byrd (1539/40–1623): English composer, famous for the development of the English Madrigal and religious organ music.
14. John Milton (1608-1674): English poet and historian who wrote the epic poem Paradise Lost.
15. William Shakespeare (1564-1616): the” national poet “of England and the most famous playwright of all time, famous for his sonnets and the tragedy”Romeo and Juliet”.
16. Donatello (1386-1466): Italian sculptor famous for his realistic sculptures (“David”, commissioned by the Medici family).
17. Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510): Italian painter, known for the painting “the Birth of Venus”.
18. Raphael (1483-1520): Italian painter, studied under da Vinci and Michelangelo. He is best known for his paintings of the Madonna and the “Athenian school”mural.
19. Michelangelo (1483-1520): Italian sculptor, painter and architect who created the David and the Sistine chapel in Rome.
Renaissance art can be explained in three basic terms:
⦁ Establishment of the principles of the rules of linear perspective, which was organized by common space;
⦁ Focusing on the person (personality, anatomy, emotions);
⦁ The rejection of decorative elements in favor of the urgent.
The Renaissance period had a long and significant impact on civilization. Leaps of development in geography and science (Ptolemaic system of astronomy) allowed people to better understand the Earth and the Universe. The printing press is one of the most notable and important inventions that allowed the ideas of scientists to become available to the public and promote education. Renaissance art laid a solid Foundation for the development of modern culture.